Week 14

An explanation of what the box model is and how it is treated by different user agents.

The term “box model” is often used by people when talking about CSS-based layouts and design. Any HTML element can be considered a box, and so the box model applies to all HTML elements.

The box model is the specification that defines how a box and its attributes relate to each other. In its simplest form, the box model tells browsers that a box defined as having width 100 pixels and height 50 pixels should be drawn 100 pixels wide and 50 pixels tall.

There is more you can add to a box, though, like padding, margins, borders, etc. This image should help explain what I’m about to run through:

Outline of box model

Let’s go to this website to check out the full tutorial on box models.

 

boxmodel


DO NOW | BOX MODEL


DO NOW | CODE ACADEMY

NO. 11 – CSS POSITIONING
The Box Model – lessons 1 – 5


MARGINS AND PADDING

Margins refer to the area around, or outside of an element. Padding, refers to the area between the edges of a box and what lives inside that box.

An easy way to remember which is which is to think of mailing a breakable object – you fill the empty space in the box with foam peanuts to protect the item. Those foam peanuts are your padding. The margin would then be the space between your box and the next box in the truck. Just remember: Padding is inside the box, margins are outside the box.

In CSS, you’ll use padding to give an element some breathing room within the space it’s in, as we did with the last example in the Backgrounds section. You typically use margins to cause a box or element to be offset from adjacent elements. The syntax for working with padding and margins is very similar.

Padding and margins may just seem decorative right now, but they’ll become critical when we start getting into CSS page layout, so make sure you understand them.

Example:

p {
padding:25px;
border:4px solid blue;
}

Would give you below:

Just like borders, padding can be controlled for the whole box, as above, or per-side:

p {
padding-top:0px; 
padding-right:25px; 
padding-bottom:45px;
padding-left:15px; 
border:4px solid blue;
}

When setting padding values separately for different sides of a box, you can use this shorthand, which achieves exactly the same result as the previous example:

p {

padding:0px 25px 45px 15px;
border:4px solid blue;
}

MARGINS

To illustrate how margins work, I’ll show you how one element (box) relates to another. For this example, we’ll be putting a sample paragraph inside of an element called a “div”. A div is an arbitrary box used to contain other things. I’ll put a border on the div so you can see it, then put a paragraph with its own border inside that div, so you can see what the margin attributes do to it.

div {
padding:0px;
margin:0px;
border:1px solid blue;
background-color:#AFEEBD;
}

p {
padding:10px;
margin:10px;
border:1px solid blue;
background-color:#ACCFDB;

}

The blue space above represents the paragraph, while the green space represents the margin between that paragraph and it’s containing box. As with padding, we can control margin depths per-side, rather than globally.


DO NOW | CODE ACADEMY

NO. 11 CSS POSITIONING
Margins, Borders, and Padding

Complete tutorials
Margins, Borders, and Padding – Lessons 6-12
Floating – Lessons 13-16


Static and Relative POSITIONING


CSS Position and Alignment Properties Values

absolute – stays where you tell it regardless of other objects
fixed – appended to window (moves when user scrolls)
relative – placed next its normal position
static – placed in its default position

Static and Relative Position

The static and relative position properties stack. Note that static is the default position value of an element, should you fail to apply any other value. If you have three statically positioned elements in your code, they will stack one on top of the next. Look at the example below with three elements, all with a position value of static:

#box_1 { 
position: static;
width: 200px;
height: 200px;
background: #ee3e64;
}

#box_2 { 
position: static;
width: 200px;
height: 200px;
background: #44accf;
}

#box_3 { 
position: static;
width: 200px;
height: 200px;
background: #b7d84b;
}

css positioning - static

This is what your HTML page would look like:

<!DOCTYPE>
<html>
<head>
<title>Untitled Document</title>
<link rel=”stylesheet” href=”style.css” type=”text/css” media=”screen” />
</head>
<body>
<!– page content goes here inside the body –>

<div id=”box_1″> 
</div>

<div id=”box_2″> 
</div>

<div id=”box_3″> 
</div>

 

</body>
</html>

This is what you style.css page would look like:

#box_1 { 
position: static;
width: 200px;
height: 200px;
background: #ee3e64;
}

#box_2 { 
position: static;
width: 200px;
height: 200px;
background: #44accf;
}

#box_3 { 
position: static;
width: 200px;
height: 200px;
background: #b7d84b;
}

Above is the static value for a simple, single-column layout where each element must sit on top of the next one. You cannot shift those elements around using offset properties such as top, right, bottom, and left. These properties are unavailable to a static element.


Relative Positioning

Relatively positioned elements behave just like statically positioned elements.  In the example below I’ve applied the relative value to the position element:

#box_1 {
position: relative;
width: 200px;
height: 200px;
background: #ee3e64;
}

#box_2 {
position: relative;
width: 200px;
height: 200px;
background: #44accf;
}

#box_3 {
position: relative;
width: 200px;
height: 200px;
background: #b7d84b;
}

Example B proves that relatively positioned elements behave exactly the same way as statically positioned elements. BUT, elements with a relative position value have far greater powers than their static siblings.

When positioning relative, you can adjust a relatively positioned element with offset properties: top, right, bottom, and left. Using the markup from my previous example, let’s add an offset position to #box_2:
#box_2 {
position: relative;
left: 200px;
width: 200px;
height: 200px;
background: #44accf;
}

By just adding the property: left: 200px, you see relative positioning in action. The three blocks are still stacked up but now the blue block (#box_2) is pushed out 200 pixels from the left. See what it looks like below:

The blue block is still in the flow of the document—elements are stacking one on top of the other—but notice the green block (#box_3) on the bottom. It’s sitting underneath the blue block, even though the blue block isn’t directly above it. When you use the offset property to shift a relatively positioned element, it doesn’t affect the element(s) that follow. The green box is still positioned as if the blue box were in its non-offset position.

For the next example, we won’t change any CSS, we’ll adjust our HTML to move #box_2 inside of #box_1:

<div id=”box_1″>
<div id=”box_2″></div>
</div>

 <div id=”box_3″></div>

 Note what I did:

The first example, each div is opened and then it is closed:

<div id=”box_1″> 
</div>

<div id=”box_2″> 
</div>

<div id=”box_3″> 
</div> 

In this example, box_1 is opened, box_2 is opened, then you close box_1 and close box_2, and finally you open div box_3 and then you close the div. 

Below is what it will look like:

Because of the new coordinate system, the blue block measures its offset 200 pixels from the left of the red block (#box_1) instead of the document. This practice is more common with elements set to position: absolute.


POSITION ABSOLUTE

Now lets take a look at the position:absolute

Unlike the static and relative values, an absolutely positioned element is removed from the normal flow. You can put it anywhere and it won’t affect or be affected by any other element in the flow. Think of it as an element with a giant strip of velcro on its back. Just tell it where to stick and it sticks. Exactly like the relative value, absolutely positioned elements respond to offset properties for positioning. You can set an element to top: 100px and left: 200px; and that element will sit exactly 100px from the top and 200px from the left of the document. Look at an example using four elements:

#box_1 { 
position: absolute;
top: 0;
left: 0;
width: 200px;
height: 200px;
background: #ee3e64;
}
#box_2 { 
position: absolute;
top: 0;
right: 0;
width: 200px;
height: 200px;
background: #44accf;
}
#box_3 { 
position: absolute;
bottom: 0;
left: 0;
width: 200px;
height: 200px;
background: #b7d84b;
}
#box_4 { 
position: absolute;
bottom: 0;
right: 0;
width: 200px;
height: 200px;
background: #ebde52;
}

Now you see four boxes, each in a corner of the browser window. Since we set each box’s position value to absolute, we’ve essentially velcroed a box to each corner of our browser window. As you resize the browser, those boxes will stay in their respective corners. If you shrink the browser window so that the boxes overlap, you’ll notice that there is no interaction at all—that’s because they’re out of the document’s normal flow.
The html for the above photo is:

 

<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC “-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN” “http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd“>
<html xmlns=”http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml“>
<head>
<meta http-equiv=”Content-Type” content=”text/html; charset=UTF-8″ />
<title>Untitled Document</title>

</head>
<body>
<!– page content goes here inside the body –>
<div id=”box_1″> 
</div>

<div id=”box_2″> 
</div>

<div id=”box_3″> 
</div>

<div id=”box_4″> 
</div>
</body>
</html>

 The CSS is

#box_1 { 
position: absolute;
top: 0;
left: 0;
width: 200px;
height: 200px;
background: #ee3e64;
}
#box_2 { 
position: absolute;
top: 0;
right: 0;
width: 200px;
height: 200px;
background: #44accf;
}
#box_3 { 
position: absolute;
bottom: 0;
left: 0;
width: 200px;
height: 200px;
background: #b7d84b;
}
#box_4 { 
position: absolute;
bottom: 0;
right: 0;
width: 200px;
height: 200px;
background: #ebde52;
}

——–

Just like relative elements, absolute elements create a new coordinate system for child elements. Use two or all four offset properties, and you can stretch an element without defining any width or height—it’s bound only by its parent element or the document itself.Look at the following code:
#box_a { 
position: absolute; 
top: 10px;
right: 10px;
bottom: 10px;
left: 10px; 
background: red; 
}
#box_b { 
position: absolute; 
top: 20px;
right: 20px; 
bottom: 20px; 
left: 20px; 
background: white;
}

What you get is a WHITE box with a RED border. See below:

Here’s another example where you create a two-column layout that fills the entire height of the document.

Here is the CSS:
#box_1 { 
position: absolute;
top: 0;
right: 20%; 
bottom: 0;
left: 0;
background: #ee3e64;
}

#box_2 { 
position: absolute; 
top: 0; 
right: 0; 
bottom: 0; 
left: 80%; 
background: #b7d84b;
}

Here is the HTML that goes in between your BODY tag:

<div id=”box_1″> 
</div>

<div id=”box_2″> 
</div>

This is what you get:

Now try the following CSS code:

#box_1 { 
width: 200px; 
height: 200px; 
background: #ee3e64; 
#box_2 { 
position: absolute; 
left: 100px; 
width: 200px; 
height: 200px; 
background: #44accf; 
}
This is what you get:

Look at the blue block (#box_2). I used only one offset, left: 100px;. This allows the #box_2 element to maintain its top edge and still shift 100 pixels to the left. If I applied a second offset to the top, we would see that our blue block (#box_2) is pulled to the top of the document.

 

RULES AND SELECTORS

To style elements in a document, you apply rules to selectors.  A “selector” is a way of referring to some specific element or group of elements on a page. If you want to apply a style to all paragraphs, then the <p> (paragraph) tag is our “selector” – it’s what we’re “selecting” to style. Selectors can either be standard HTML tags, or custom elements you define.

“rule” is a set of properties that get applied to the selected element or elements. A rule can be as simple as a single line declaring the background color of the element, or a complex grouping of properties that work together to achieve an effect.

Let’s walk through styling a single paragraph. First, attach a style to an element on the page, and create rules as name:value pairs, separated by semi-colons. (You’re writing this all in your HTML page)

This single paragraph, the paragraph that you applied the color “red” to, will look different from every other paragraph on the page. The text will be red.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo …

Now, delete the “<p style=”color:red;> from your HTML page. Go into Text Wrangler and create a new page and call it style.css.  This will be your EXTERNAL stylesheet. See the image below.

In the new style.css document you’ve created, write in the following:

p {

        color:red;
    }

Note: You must put this link inside the header tags. <link rel=”stylesheet” type=”text/css” href=”style.css” /> You can add as many rules as you want. See a few more below:

 p {

        color:black;
        font-size:12px;
        font-family:Verdana;
    }

NO style tags are to be used inside your HTML document. Everything will be placed in an external stylesheet called style.css.


DO NOW | CODE ACADEMY

NO. 11 CSS POSITIONING
Floating – Lessons 13-16


DO NOW | CSS Basics – HTML/CSS


DO NOW | CODE ACADEMY

CSS POSITIONING
Absolute, Relative, and Fixed Positioning
Lesson 17-20

Review
Lesson 21-25


CUSTOM SELECTORS

In the example above, every <p> tag will have ALL the attributes you list. This is a page-wide rule that is applied to all paragraphs on the page. That’s fine in some circumstances  but what if you want to apply a specific attribute to a specific paragraph? CSS uses the “class” and “id” constructs to make this very eacy. By attaching a “class” name to an HTML element, and writing a corresponding rule for that class, you can get as specific as you like. Go back to the style rules above and modify them  to look like this:

p {

color:red;

font-size:10px;

font-family:Arial;

}

.mango {

color:blue;

background-color:gold;

border:3px solid black;

padding 15px;

}

Now, modify the opening <p> tag of your paragraphs to look like this:

1
<p class="mango">Lorem ipsum ... </p>

That specific single paragraph on your page will have the additional stylistic information taken from the style.css doc from .alert. That specific paragraph will now have the font color: red, font-size:10px, font-family:arial and everything listed under .alert. If you add <p class=”alert”> to another <p> tag on your page, that <p> tag will also have the same attributes. If you want another <p> on the page to have different and specifics attributes, simply name it something different. Example: <p class=”monkey”> and write the specific .monkey attributes in your style.css page.


CLASS VS. ID

There are two constructs for custom selectors — “class” and “id.” Class can be applied as many times as you like on a page. IDs work almost the same way, but apply to just one element on a page. When creating rules for IDs, simply prepend the selector name with “#” rather than “.”  Example:

#footer {
color:#ff0000;
background-color:red;
border:2px solid black;
padding:20px;
}

Since you will probably only ever have one footer on a page, it makes sense to use this as an ID rather than as a class. You would invoke this ruleset in your document like this:

1
<p id="footer">Lorem ipsum dolor sit ... irure dolor in reprehenderit in </p>

REFINING SELECTORS

Above we created rules that apply either to a single HTML tag, or to anything that matches a custom selector name. But we have a lot more control than that. You can  broaden or narrow the “scope” of elements your rulesets apply to.

 You can easily apply a <p> style to both a paragraph andlists or a block quote or just about anything else. You could just duplicate the rule, but it would give you more work because any time you modified one, you’d have to modify all the rest as well. CSS easily solves this problem by allowing you list a set of selectors for a given rule.  See below:

p, ol, ul, dd, blockquote {
color:#00ff00;
font-size:14px;
font-family:Verdana;
}

Now the rules in the set will apply equally to paragraphs, ordered, unordered and definition lists, and to blockquotes. If you want to set basic rules that will apply to your entire document, there’s an easier way — just use the  <body> tag as your selector:

body {
color:#00ff00;
font-size:14px;
font-family:Verdana;
}

Since all visible elements in a document (elements that show up on your website) fall inside the opening and closing <body> tags, the rules above will apply to everything on the page. CSS favors the specific over the general so you can easily override any rule on a per-selector basis. For example:

body {
color:#000000;
font-size:14px;
font-family:Verdana;

}

blockquote {
color:#ffffff;}

Even though you’ve defined a color for the entire document within you <body> tage, and your block quotes fall inside that document, blockquotes will be rendered with a white font (#ffffff stands for white). The cascade says that even though everything on the page is black by default (you listed that in the <body> tag), blockquotes are treated like an exception.

Narrowing the Scope of Rulesets

We can also create the opposite situation. Above, I showed you the class .mango, which applied to anything on the page with class="mango". What if  you want to be more specific than that or if  you only want those rules to apply to paragraphs in that specific class, but not to blockquotes in that class. This is done like this:

p.mango {
color:darkred;
background-color:blue;
border:2px solid black;
padding:10px;
}
The rule above would not be invoked for standard paragraphs, nor would it be invoked for blockquotes with a class of “mango.” It would only be invoked for paragraphs with a class of “mango.” This “narrowing” approach can be used for IDs as well as classes:

p#mango {
color:darkred;
background-color:blue;
border:2px solid black;
padding:10px;
}

The rule above would not be invoked for standard paragraphs, nor would it be invoked for blockquotes with a class of “mango.” It would only be invoked for paragraphs with a class of “mango”. This “narrowing” approach can be used for IDs as well as classes:

p#mango{
color:darkred;
background-color:bisque;
border:2px solid gray;
padding:10px;

}


FONTS AND TEXT

You can  set the font face (font-family), the font size, font style (such as italic) and the font weight (such as bold):

p {
font-family:”Arial”,Verdana;Georgia,Serif;
font-size:10pt;
font-weight:bold;
font-style:underline;
}

Font sizes can be set in pixels, points, ems, or relative values.

From within CSS you can control how wide your letters and lines are spaced, set your text color, align text right, left or center, and even change the case of text.

Setting text color and letter spacing:

Letter spacing can be set in points, pixels, or ems. “Em” is a typesetter’s term, referring to the width of one character. It is recommend to use ems when setting text sizes and widths, because it flexes automatically with the user’s current screen resolution and magnification.

Line spacing is not set in ems – it’s a simple decimal value representing a factor of the current line height. In the example below, “1.8″ means “spacing between lines should be 1.8 times whatever the current height of a line of text is.”

p {
color:#166A3F;
font-weight:bold;
letter-spacing: 0.3em;
line-height: 1.8;
}

If you wanted to make the text uppercase, just add the following line : text-transform: uppercase;  If you wanted to change the text alignment, just add the following line: text-align: center|left|right; (You would need to choose either center, left or right). You could also add: text-align:justify; if you wanted the text to justify into a block.


BORDERS

You can put a border around almost anything on your page including a single character, an image or a section of a page. Borders can be of any thickness, any color, and can be solid, dotted, or dashed. If you use border: by itself, the border will go around all four sides of the element. Or you can use border-top:, border-left: and so on to control each side of the border independently. You can can consolidate all of the attributes of the border into a single command by separating the attributes with spaces.

Example:

p {
border:1px solid #4c97ff;
}

By not specifying a side, you get the same 1px consistent border on all four sides of an element. If you want to control each specific side of a border, use: (change the colors to what ever you like)
p {
border-top:3px solid #595128;
border-right:5px solid #3d3600;
border-left:2px dotted #5bbe00;
border-bottom:5px dashed #005062; 
}

Using four different colors on a border would be pretty ugly so try his. A 1px  border around a paragraph would look like this:


BACKGROUNDS

You can set the background of any element with your choice of either a solid color or a tiled (repeating) image.

Example:

p {
background-color:#00ff00;
}

If you want to use a tiled image as a background, just specify its relative or absolute URL:

p {
background-image: url(‘http://a3.twimg.com/profile_images/454374541/iTunesU_Button.jpg’)
}

By default, a background image will tile repeatedly in all directions, to fill up the space it’s assigned to. You can tell your background image to only repeat along the x or y axis. In the next example, we use both a background color and a background image. We tell the background image to only repeat vertically. To prevent the text from sitting on top of the tiled image, we add 120px of left padding.

p {
background-image: url(‘http://a3.twimg.com/profile_images/454374541/iTunesU_Button.jpg’);
background-repeat: repeat-y;
background-color:#D33333;
padding:10px;
padding-left:120px;
border:1px solid #899999;
}


LISTS AND CSS

An ordered or unordered list can be much more than a simple set of bullet points – in CSS, lists are often used to create navigation elements such as horizontal or vertical menus. Let’s start with options for simple lists.

For unordered lists, you can select whether the bullet style should be circular, square, or none:

ul {
list-style-type: square;
}
apple
Is a
List
Try changing “square” to “circle” or “disc” for other effects. You can also use an image in place of your bullets by specifying its URL:

ul {
list-style-image: url(http://www.w3schools.com/css/arrow.gif);
}
This
Is a
List
Ordered lists can have any combination of Roman numerals, decimal, alphabetic characters and more. A nice trick is to nest lists within lists, then use the CSS nested selector syntax we learned earlier to style different levels of your list differently, like this:

ol {
list-style-type: upper-roman;
}

ol ol {
list-style-type: decimal;
}

ol ol ol {
list-style-type: lower-alpha;
}
Person
Place
Region
Country
United States
Canada
Mexico
State
Thing
In the example here, ordered lists “ol” are told to use “upper-roman” as the list-style-type, unless it’s an ordered list inside of an ordered list, in which case the list-style-type is “decimal”… unless it’s a triply nested ordered list, in which case the list-style-type is “lower-alpha.” This technique is the key to building CSS based flyout navigation menus.


DO NOW | LISTS AS MENUS IN CSS

By default, list items are “block-level elements,” which means each one gets a line break above and below itself. To make a list appear horizontally, we need to override the default block behavior and use CSS to tell list items that they’re “inline” elements instead. In this example, we’ve also added background-color and padding to our list items, to make them appear like real menu items. Here is the simple HTML and CSS to create a basic list menu.

li {
display: inline;
list-style-type: none;
background-color:#425899;
color:white;
padding:5px;
}

<ul>
<li>Item one</li>
<li>Item two</li>
<li>Item three</li>
<li>Item four</li>
<li>Item five</li>
</ul>
Which seen by the browser it looks like this:

To make the experience more intuitive, we want to add some rollover behavior, so that the list items change color when the mouse rolls over them. To accomplish this, we’ll first make our list items into links (in the HTML). Then we’ll again use the CSS nested selector syntax to detect a linked item inside of a list item. Finally, we’ll use the anchor tag’s :hover pseudo-property to change appearance when a list item is in a certain state – namely, when the mouse is hovering over it.

li {
display: inline;
list-style-type: none;
}

li a {
background-color: #60996C;
color:white;
padding:5px;
text-decoration:none; 
}

li a:hover { 
/* This rule is only in effect when mouse is hovering */
background-color: #567499;
}

<ul>
<li><a href=”#”>Item one</a></li>
<li><a href=”#”>Item two</a></li>
<li><a href=”#”>Item three</a></li>
<li><a href=”#”>Item four</a></li>
<li><a href=”#”>Item five</a></li>
</ul>
See below. Roll mouse over list items to see the hover state in effect.


HOMEWORK | WEEK 15

  • Watch the “Box model with css” video on this page again. Create a new page and call it boxmodel.html. Make sure you update you navigation list in your other pages to add this new page. In your boxmodel.html page, create a page with the black, green red and blue boxes that looks exactly like what is in the video. Make a SPECIFIC css document for this boxmodel and call it boxmodel.css.
  1. Create a horizontal menu with hover state
  2. Completed Code Academy Web Fundamentals classes
  3. Using the positioning models we learned today, create pages with layouts as close to the following examples as possible. Use only HTML and CSS to create these layouts (no images!)
  1. Finish the boxmodel video tutorial

 

 


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